Proposition One


Section 2

A March 1, 1995 Washington Post article by R. Jeffrey Smith and David B. Ottaway, "U.S. Wages Last-Ditch Campaign for Permanent Nonproliferation Pact," analyzed the "nonproliferation" results of the Non-Proliferation Treaty to date:

"Current levels of U.S. and Russian long-range missiles are double the level of 1970, when the nuclear NPT took effect. Developing countries say that a projected cut in the number of warheads to 7,000, although the lowest level since 1970, still falls short of the treaty's promise of disarmament.

"Declared long-range warheads...
     ....................Russia & U.S._____France___China___Britain

     1950  Early years ........ 299
     1959  Buildup .......... 2,779
     1970  NPT takes effect . 7,455
     1989  Peak ............ 23,797
     1995  Present level ... 16,900 ........ 500 .... 300 .... 250
     2003  Promised           7,000

"Undeclared nuclear states .........      Israel____India___Pakistan
     1995  Possess but don't admit  ........ 200 ..... 20 ...... 10

"U.S. officials said that technically, Washington needs the votes of just 11 more countries to get a majority at the 172- nation conference and extend the NPT forever. But Washington would consider that a foreign policy failure because it wants support from a large portion of the estimated 80 or so undecided countries.

"Otherwise, U.S. officials said, they fear the treaty could lack sufficient moral and political authority to preserve global support for nuclear nonproliferation....

"'Although a quarter century has elapsed since the treaty came into force, no serious efforts have been made... to attain the [disarmament] objectives that were clearly stipulated,' said Ambassador Makarim Wibisono of Indonesia, whose country is the chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement of 111 Third World nations....

"Israel is the one country in the region that the Clinton administration is not pressuring to endorse the treaty. Following long-standing U.S. practice, the administration is keeping its hands off Israel's nuclear policy... U.S. officials say it is a waste of time to urge Israel to back the NPT because the country long has relied on its nuclear arsenal as the ultimate security guarantee and is highly unlikely to sign the treaty....

"Only 13 countries--including North Korea, Thailand, and Venezuela--have gone so far as to say they oppose the U.S. plan.

"... One benchmark of U.S. progress will be the stance adopted by 22 Arab League nations at a meeting scheduled for late March. ... Another benchmark will be the position taken by a group of Latin American foreign ministers at a meeting in Chile on March 28....

"In his speech this evening, Clinton is to reaffirm a statement he made in May 1994 to visiting Indian Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao that the US supports the 'goal of elimination' of nuclear weapons, as provided in the NPT. But a senior U.S. official noted that achieving this goal remains highly unlikely 'in my lifetime.'"


On March 29, 1992, an important editorial appeared in the Washington Post by Arjun Makhijani (Institute for Energy and Environmental Research in Takoma Park) and Katherine Yih (International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Cambridge, MA), entitled: "What to Do at Doomsday's End - How the World Can Step Back from Nuclear Brinkmanship":

"The end of the Cold War has brought an abrupt end to the logic of nuclear deterrence in which the nuclear superpowers built vast strategic arsenals to deter their adversaries from risking total destruction by launching a first strike.

"Today, possessing 'deterrent' weapons when there is no threat only encourages other governments to seek their own 'deterrent' capability in turn.

"Such proliferation increases the danger of nuclear war--and leads to the inevitable conclusion that in the post-Cold War world, achieving stable, long-term nuclear nonproliferation requires a commitment to universal nuclear disarmament.

"Up to now, much of the international effort to combat the spread of nuclear weapons has centered on the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), signed by most nuclear or nuclear-capable nations. But some are non-signatories because they regard the NPT as inequitable, and three of them--Israel, India and Pakistan--are today de facto nuclear weapons states.

"The NPT has proven inadequate--even among the countries that have signed it--because, among other things, the treaty ENCOURAGES the transfer of civilian nuclear technology. This has enabled numerous countries, including Iraq, to acquire expertise for making nuclear weapons....

"We cannot make plutonium and other nuclear weapons materials disappear overnight. They are long-lived and dangerous to process. Yet in the near future we can eliminate the risk of accidental nuclear war, demonstrate a commitment to nuclear disarmament and make genuine progress towards nonproliferation....

"We propose that the next step in the process started by mutual U.S.-Soviet unilateral weapons reductions be THE REMOVAL OF ALL NUCLEAR WARHEADS from all countries' delivery systems. Warheads would be removed from missiles, ships and airplanes, stored in containers designed to prevent an accidental nuclear criticality and shielded from stray electrical signals.

"Warhead repositories, under international safeguards and inspection, would become a key element in ushering in the new nonnuclear age. Once in storage, it would take weeks to put the weapons back into their delivery vehicles--perhaps even months for some submarine-based weapons. Such a delay would have been considered unacceptable when deterrence was the principal objective.

"While it would be physically possible to rearm, it would become politically more and more difficult to do so....

"Putting all nuclear weapons into continuously monitored facilities would virtually eliminate the risks of accidental nuclear war and radioactive contamination, reduce the risks of covert sale of fissile materials and attendant proliferation risks. Finally, removing weapons from worldwide patrol would reduce the threat that near-nuclear weapons states feel from the nuclear weapons powers, which they use as justification for pursuing their own nuclear weapons programs....

"The heart of our proposal is that it be multilateral and implemented by all nuclear weapons states...."


The November-December 1993 Peace Courier (published in Europe) analyzed the NPT in "The Bomb or Peace" by Jasjit Singh, a member of India's National Security Advisory Board and Director of Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses:

"The real problem is that ... the world has been led to believe that nuclear weapons have kept the peace in Europe.... [This makes more and more countries want to have them as well.]

"Flaws in NPT: ... Treaty is discriminatory, but this is only a small part of the problem. NPT has failed to meet its own stated objectives, especially when judged against three critical yardsticks--sound principles, efficiency, and security interests.

"The number of warheads proliferated from less than 12,000 in 1968 to 55,000 twenty years later. The twin objectives of non- proliferation and disarmament set out in the NPT have not been met....

"The NPT has also given nuclear weapons a certain legitimacy, while at the same time tending to provide a false sense of security. States which adhere to the Treaty as non-nuclear weapon states are believed to be such, although the reality may be different, as Iraq's example shows. South Africa secretly built up a stockpile of at least six nuclear weapons. It joined NPT in July 1991; its denuclearization will remain under question. North Korea signed the NPT in 1985 but is pursuing a weapon-related programme. Iran is a party to the Treaty but is suspected by some of having a weapon-related programme."


[February 13, 1994, Washington Post by Thomas W. Lippman, "For Nuclear Arms Control Professional, Negotiating Treaty Extension is Job 1; The Challenge of a Career: Ensure Nonproliferation in 14 months"]:

"...[Thomas Graham Jr] said his assignment is to get all 161 current signatories--soon to be 162, when Kazakhstan signs up--to accept a permanent extension of the treaty in its current form, with no time limit. Any additional countries that wish to sign will be welcome, he said.

"The only nations certain not to participate, he said, are Israel, India, Pakistan and Brazil, 'though it's conceivable that Brazil might change its mind.'

"Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Amorim said during a recent visit to Washington that one reason his country would not sign is that the NPT has not been effective: It did not prevent Iraq and North Korea from obtaining nuclear weapons technology....."


In April 1994 Peace Courier, Bahig Nassar, Coordinator, Centre of Coordination among Arab Peace Organizations, wrote in "Nuclear Weapons Disarmament and Non-Proliferation":

"...[W]e, in the Middle East, are very much concerned over the issue [of nuclear weapons] owing to the Israeli possession....

"The US and Russian presidents jointly declared that their missiles will no longer direct nuclear warheads at targets in their countries. Other targets in other regions will be chosen for their missiles.

"In this respect, it should be noted that the European members of NATO and Russia have decided to establish their special Rapid Deployment Forces which will be added to the USA-RDF. All these forces are carrying nuclear weapons and all of them had been established for interventions in the third world regions."


On May 20, 1994, the International Peace Bureau in Geneva Switzerland sent out to "colleagues" in the scientific community a package of information, produced by the International Coalition for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, which observed:

"A large number of states may have a secret nuclear capacity or can obtain it. In addition to the five declared nuclear parties to the NPT: USA, Russia, UK, France and China, there is a number of states with declared or clandestine nuclear weapons programmes.

"South Africa has recently admitted that it manufactured 6 nuclear weapons in the 1970's and early 1980's. These were later dismantled, and South Africa has now joined the NPT regime, accepting full international control of its nuclear facilities.

"Israel is believed to have a significant nuclear capacity, even if this has never been confirmed officially. Israel also has missiles with a wide coverage of the Middle East region.

"India and Pakistan have semi-officially declared that they have a nuclear capability.

"Iran, Iraq and North Korea have demonstrated a desire to obtain nuclear weapons, in spite of their participation in the NPT. A total of 19 countries today have access to technology for production of fissile material - uranium enrichment or plutonium for reprocessing or both....

"It is important that socially responsible engineers and scientists become active in support of non-proliferation. Your support is essential...."

They outlined their suggestions "Towards the elimination of nuclear weapons":

* A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT).

* Beyond Start 1 and 2, deeper cuts.

* Active promotion of Nuclear Free Zones.

* The illegality of nuclear free weapons (support World Court Project).

* A Convention for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons

* Preservation of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: extension of the NPT beyond 1995, conditionally; obligations of nuclear weapons states should be fulfilled under Article VI; universalize negotiations on participation.

* Strengthen the overall non-proliferation regime. Reform the IAEA - end nuclear energy promotion and replace with safety, safeguards, decommissioning,, waste disposal and verification of nuclear disarmament agreements. Increase authority of the IAEA to inspect, control plutonium and other weapons-grade material. Establish control mechanisms for delivery systems.

* Develop an alternative system of security (nonviolent cooperation).