Proposition One



But First:

Do Treaties Really Work?

The United States Constitution vests sole authority in the chief executive to negotiate treaties. Within the existing framework, the people are entirely removed from direct participation in the formulation of international relationships.

Historically, treaties have failed to produce lasting peace or meaningful disarmament, and they are not really enforceable (how does one enforce a peace treaty except by going to war?). Disarmament treaties so far have been highly publicized smokescreens behind which leaders retired obsolete weapons systems, but allowed new, more powerful ones to be developed. The grand presidential "summits" calmed growing domestic anti-nuclear unrest with pomp and promises that nevertheless leave us still nearly extinct.

"Arms limitations" talks have been more about production levels than actual, irrevocable reduction agreements. The governments of the nuclear powers, not truly wishing to eliminate their most awesome power, have sent negotiators to the table without any real predilection toward zero nuclear weapons.

Treaties are negotiated and agreed upon by elected officials. The mandate for a particular treaty may change when new officials are elected. Constitutional law, however, remains intact through each successive group of leaders, and, therefore, remains the law those leaders must implement and "defend."


Points to remember about the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, signed July 1, 1968, enacted March 5, 1970, and debated in New York the spring 1995:

* According to the Preamble, a purpose of the treaty was to facilitate and guarantee access to peaceful applications of nuclear technology and by-products, for all parties of the treaty, whether nuclear or non-nuclear states, under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

* Additionally, quoting from the treaty's Preamble:

"Declaring their intention to achieve at the earliest possible date the cessation of the nuclear arms race and to undertake effective measures in the direction of nuclear disarmament,

"Urging the cooperation of all States in the attainment of this objective,

"Recalling the determination expressed by the Parties to the 1963 Treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water in its Preamble to seek to achieve the discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons for all time and to continue negotiations to this end,

"Desiring to further the easing of international tension and the strengthening of trust between States in order to facilitate the cessation of the manufacture of nuclear weapons, the liquidation of all their existing stockpiles, and the elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and the means of their delivery...."

* Of pivotal significance is Article VI:

"ARTICLE VI: Each of the parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control...."

China, France, Russia, UK and USA, the only "recognized" nuclear weapons powers in 1967 AND now, were the original "nuclear" signatories. The Treaty provides for nonproliferation conferences every five years.

By varying accounts, NPT currently has 167 signatory countries (per current Greenpeace flier), 158, 165 or 172. A detailed breakdown was obtained in 1993, from International Peace Bureau (IPB):

"Present Parties to NPT:

"According to the United Nations' source, the number of the Parties to NPT amounts to 158 states as of the end of 1993. The ... regions are as follows:

"Asia [and Middle East] 33 - Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Cyprus, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Jordan, Korea (North), Korea (South), Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, VietNam, Yemen;

"Pacific, 10 - Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Western Samoa;

"Africa, 47 - Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central Africa, Chad, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bisau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe;

"Europe, 38 - Albania, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Vatican City;

"North America, 2 - Canada, United States;

"Central America, 20 - Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Costa Rica, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago;

"South America, 8 - Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela.

"As of 1993... 26 of the 184 member states of the United Nations ha[d] not yet joined NPT. In Asia, India, Israel and Pakistan, which have been suspected of the possession of nuclear weapons, have not acceded to NPT. India allegedly conducted a nuclear test in 1974. Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) joined NPT in 1985, but declared its intention of withdrawal from it in March 1993.... The Republic of South Africa became a member state to NPT in 1991. According to the statement of President deKlerk in March 1993, it had launched on the development of nuclear weapons in 1974, and destroyed 6 nuclear weapons in 1990.

"The fifteen Republics of the former Soviet Union were a single member to NPT as one federated state, but after the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 only seven of them (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia and Uzbekistan) are members. This poses a serious future problem since countries like Ukraine still continue to possess nuclear weapons."

Text of NPT
Treaties Section 2
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