On September 12, 1994, at 1:49 a.m., a Cessna P150 airplane crashed onto the South Lawn of the WHITE House, killing the pilot, Frank Eugene Corder, but injuring no one else. The plane came to s halt against the south wall of the Executive Mansion, causing minimal damage. President Clinton and his family were not in residence at the time; hence, they were never in any danger.

This incursion into the White House Complex commanded the immediate attention of then Secretary of the Treasury Lloyd Bentsen, who directed Under Secretary of the Treasury for Enforcement Ronald K. Noble and United States Secret Service Director Eljay B. Bowron to conduct a "thorough and comprehensive" investigation into the circumstances leading to the plane crash, the response of the United Stares Secret Service (Secret Service), and the aadequacy of the procedures used to protect the President and First Family within the White House Complex.[1] in response to the Secretary’s

[1 For purposes of the White House Security Review, the "White House Complex" includes the Executive Residence, the West Wing, the East Wing, and the Old Executive Office Building.]


directive, Under Secretary Noble formed the White House Security Review (the Review). This directive to conduct an exhaustive inquiry has been adopted fully by the present Secretary of the Treasury, Robert E. Rubin.

Shortly fter the Review was established, a second disturbing incident occurred. On a mild, October afternoon, lone individual, Francisco Martin Duran, positioned himself in front of the White House grounds and fired twenty-nine rounds from a semiautomatic assault rifle into the North Facade of the White House, endangering the lives of Secret Service Uniformed Division officers, White House visitors, ;and members of the press. Immediately, three nearby citizens subdued Duran, and Secret Service Uniformed Division officers took him into custody. Despite the presence of tourists, White House staff, Secret Service personnel, and others in the line of fire and on the sidewalk near Duran, no one was injured. President Clinton was in a room facing the south side of the Executive Mansion at the time of the incident and was never in any danger. The barrage of bullets struck the North Facade of the White House eleven times, including one bullet that penetrated a window in the Press Briefing Room in the West Wing.


In light of these two incidents, then Secretary Bentsen directed the Review to examine the following:

i) The facts surrounding the September 12, 1994 plane crash on the South Lawn and the October 29, 1994 shooting by Francisco Martin Duran at the White House Complex;

ii) The dangers posed to the White House Complex and protectees therein, by air or ground assaults;

iii) The adequacy of the procedures aand policies currently used by the Secret Service to address these dangers;

iv) The effectiveness of established mechanisms for communicating to the Secret Service vita intelligence information concerning possible air and ground ;assaults received by all relevant federal, state and local authorities (e.g., the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and state and local police);

v) The feasibility of techniques and measures, including state-of-the-art technologies, to enhance the capability of the Secret Service to safeguard the White House Complex and protectees therein from air and ground assaults; and,

vi) The need to keep the White House open and accessible to the American-n public without jeopardizing valid security concerns.

In late December 1994, four additional incidents were reported by the media as possible security breaches t the White House. The most significant of these incidents occurred he morning of December 17, 1994, when four shots were fired from a 9mm handgun at the Executive Residence from unknown point south of the Ellipse. Two shots landed short of the Executive


Residence, one landed on the State Floor balcony, and the fourth penetrated a window in the State Floor Dining Room. The other three incidents were examined because they occurred during the pendency of the Review and were reported by the media as raising further questions about White House security. These incidents did not, however, pose any serious threat to the security of the President. In fact, they are representative of events commonly fed by the Secret Service and the United States Park Police (Park Police).

The first of these incidents occurred on December 21, 1994, when Secret Service Uniformed Division officers opened the Southwest Gate to the White House Complex to permit an authorized vehicle to enter. When the gate was opened, an individual ran through it and started up West Executive Avenue. The individual was apprehended immediately by Uniformed Division officers. This individual had been identified previously by the Secret Service for his peculiar and extreme interest in the White House.

The second of these incidents occurred early in the morning of December 23, 1994, when P Secret Service Uniformed Division officer patrolling the South Executive Avenue sidewalk just south of the White House Complex grounds noticed a suspicious-looking individual. A Park Police


officer, who was alerted by the Secret Service, conducted a protective search of the --individual and recovered a 9mm handgun.

The third incident also occurred on December 23, 1994, when a man parked his car on E Street between the South Lawn of he 'White House grounds and the Ellipse and exited the vehicle, leaving the motor running. The man then sprinted crass the Ellipse toward the Washington Monument. Both Uniformed Division and Park Police officers approached him and said that he could not leave his car parked in that location. The man told the officers that the car contained a bomb. The Uniformed Division officers immediately called for an Explosive Ordinance Disposal (EOD) technician to examine the vehicle. A search of the vehicle revealed that it did not in fact contain any explosive devices.

One final incident occurred during the Review that received national news coverage because it was a fatal shooting that occurred in front of the White House. On December 20, 1994, n individual wielding a knife threatened a Park Police officer on the north side of Pennsylvania Avenue cross from the White House The individual, Marcelino Corniel, then ran across the street to the sidewalk directly in front of the White House. Park Police and Secret Service Uniformed Division officers surrounded the


individual and demanded that he drop his knife. Subsequently, he was fatally shot by Park Police officer. This incident did not concern the security of the White House Complex, but concerned primarily the conduct of an officer outside the jurisdiction of the Department of the Treasury. This incident is currently the substance of a homicide investigation s is any fatal shooting by a law enforcement officer in the District of Columbia, and was not incorporated into the Review. The incident demonstrated, however, the possible problems inherent in having multiple law enforcement agencies share jurisdiction over the streets and parks contiguous to the White House.


The events that led to the formation of the Review generated intense public interest in the personal security of the President and First Family, and in the physical security of the White House Complex. As President Clinton recognized in his weekly Saturday radio address following the Corder incident, the Executive Residence is regarded by the pubic as the "People's House." Nevertheless, it is vitally important to preserve the confidentiality of the protective methodology employed by the Secret Service. To respond to the public demand for a thorough recounting, while so satisfying the Review’s obligation to safeguard national security information, the Secretary of the


Treasury reached beyond the Department of the Treasury for assistance in conducting this inquiry. Six individuals universally esteemed for their professional achievement and integrity were invited to serve on an Advisory Committee to the Review. The Committee’s role, as defined in the Mission Charter, was to "assure that the Review [was] comprehensive and objective, that its findings [were] supported by the facts, and its recommendations [were] sound. "

The following individuals volunteered countless hours of their time, shared the insights, and contributed their expertise to ensure that the Review was conducted in a rigorous, thorough, and impartial manner.

ROBERT CARSWELL. Secretary Carswell served as Deputy Secretary of the Treasury from 1977 to 1981. Prior to that he served as an officer in the Office of Naval Intelligence (1952 - 1955) and as Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury (1962 - 1965). In 1980, he served as the United States negotiator of the financial provisions contained in the United States - Iran hostage accord. In 1964, Mr. Carswell worked on an internal review of the Secret Service's presidential protective operations in the wake of the Kennedy


assassination. He is currently a senior partner at the law firm of Shearman & Sterling.

WILLIAM T. COLEMAN, JR. Secretary Coleman served as Secretary of the Department of Transportation from 1975 to 1977. Secretary Coleman was principal author of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund's Supreme Court brief in Brown v. Board of Education. He has Compiled a distinguished record of public service, having seed as senior consultant and counsel to the President’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy; Co-Chairman of the Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on South Africa; Consultant to the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Member of the National Commission on Productivity and Member of the President’s Commirtee on Government Employment Policy. He is a senior partner at the law firm of O'Melveny & Myers.

CHARLES W. DUNCAN, JR. Secretary Duncan served as Deputy Secretary of Defense under President Carter and, in 1979, he became the second Secretary of the Department of Energy. Secretary Duncan also has enjoyed a distinguished career in the private sector. He held various management positions at Duncan Foods in Houston, Texas, and later


served as chariman of Coca-Cola Europe. In 1971, he became president of the Coca-Cola Corporation, a position he held until 1974.

DAVID C. JONES. General Jones seved as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1978 to 1982. Previously, he served four years as Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force. During the Korean War, General Jones was assigned to a bombardment squadron and accumulated more than 300 flying hours on missions over North Korea. In 1969, he served in Vietnam as Deputy Commander for Operations and as Vice-Commander of the Seventh Air Force. He also served as the Commander-in-Chief of the United States Air Forces in Europe and, concurrently, as Commander of the Fourth Allied Tactical Air Force. In that position, he played principal role in establishing the integrated air headquarters in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Central Region, Allied Air Forces, Central Europe.

JUDITH RODIN. Dr. Rodin is President of the University of Pennsylvania. Until her appointment to that position, she held the Philip R. Allen Professorship of Psychology at Yale University. She joined the faculty at Yale in 1972, and later served s Provost and Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. She has published 203


articles in academic journals and has authored and co-authored ten books; Dr. Rodin also serves as a member of President Clinton’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology.

WILLAM H. WEBSTER. Judge Webster was appointed to the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri in 1970 and elevated to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit in 1973. He was appointed Director of the FBI in 1978, and held that position until 1987, a which time he was appointed Director of the CIA, a position he held until 1991. Judge Webster aIso served as Special Advisor to the Los Angeles Police Commission, which was formed following the civil unrest relating to the Rodney King incident. He is currently a senior partner at the Iaw firm of Milbnk, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy.

The Advisors met five times as a group to discuss the work and findings of the Review. [2] Advisors also mer individually with Under Secretay Noble and members of the Review to review documents, examine facilities, receive

[2 The Advisory Committee was specially exempted by Congress from the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act. Treasury, Postal Service and General Government Appropriations Act of 1995, Pub. L. No. 103-329, § 540.]


Background Information on the White House Security Review individual briefings and analyze data. Upon completion of the investigation, the Advisors discussed the Classified Report, the final recommendations of the Review, and the Classified Report's Executive Summary.

The Review was divided into two parts. The Under Secretary formed a Review Team for Main Treasury, and the Director of the Secret Service formed an investigative team within the Secret Service. The Main Treasury Review. was conduced by Attorneys, most of whom were from outside the Department of the Treasury. The Executive Director for the Review was David L. Douglass, former federal prosecutor, who is presently an attorney It the Law firm of Wiley, Rein & Fielding. R. Keith Walton, Senior Advisor to the Under Secretary of the Treasury (Enforcement), and Barbara Mack Harding, an attorney at Kirkland & Ellis and a former federal prosecutor, served as Deputy Directors. Elisabeth A. Bresee, a former Assistant United States Attorney for the District of Columbia, served as the Director. Four individuals served as Assistant Directors: Lewis A. Grossman, an attorney at Covington & Burling; James E. Johnson, Deputy Chief of the Criminal Division for the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York; Neil McKittrick, an attorney at Hill & Barlow; and Alison Tucher, who had just completed clerkship with Justice Souter of the Supreme Court of the United States.


Furthermore, the Review could not have been completed without substantial assistance from the following members of the team: Ina W.E. Boston, lntelligence Specialist; Lorrine Rooks Cary, Writer-Editor, Shana Dixon, Management Program Technician; Gail V. Harris-Berry, Office Manager; Adrian Olson, Management Information Specialist; Loretta P. Veres, Assistant Office Manager, and Erik H. Werth, Special Assistant.

In addition, the Treasury Inspector General, Valerie Lau, attended Advisory Committee meetings and monitored the work of the Review to ensure that the Secretary’s directive was implemented properly. Inspectors from her office met regularly with members of the Review, attended briefings, reviewed documents gathered during the course of the Review, and reviewed the Classified Report throughout the drafting process. A copy of the Inspector General’s letter to the Secretary of the Treasury reporting the findings and evaluation of her office precedes this summary. Edward S. Knight, Gene Counsel of the Department of the Treasury, provided advice and assistance to the Review and the Advisory Committee. Robert M. McNamara, Jr, Assistant General Counsel of the Treasury (Enforcement), served as Counsel to the Review.


The Review retained consultants to evaluate various technical aspects of its analysis. These consultants provided oral briefings to the Review and submersed written reports, which we included in the Appendix to the Classified Report. The Review's consultants include:

MERRILL A. MCPEAK General McPeak recently retired s Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, a position he had held since 1990. As Chief, he served as the senior uniformed Air Force officer responsible for a combined active duty, Guard, Reserve, and civilian force of over 850,000 people serving at approximately 1,300 locations in the United States and overseas. As a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he functioned as a military advisor to the Secretary of Defense, the National Security Counsel, and the President. General McPeak provided expert advice to the Review concerning command and control issues and technical options. Gen. McPeak also acted as the Review's liaison to the Department of Defense working groups formed to assist the Review.

EUGENE F. GRENEKER Currently Mr. Greneker is the Physical Security Technical Area Manager of the Sensors and Electromagnetic Applications Laboratory at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Mr.


Greneker has served as the Project Director of eleven major projects conducted through the Georgia Tech Research Institute, each incorporating radar as the focal point. These radar-related investigations have been conducted for the United States Army, the United States Air Force, Sandia National Laboratories, the United States Customs Service, the National Highway Safety Administration, . the United States coast Guard, the United Sates Department of Agriculture, the Georgia Department of Transportation, and the State of Georgia Governor's Office. Mr. Greneker provided advice on radar-related issues.

ROBERT P. BRLETICH. Lieurenant Colonel Brletich is the Chief, Physical Security Branch, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans for the United states Army. He has twenty-three years of extensive experience in physical security, law enforcement, administration, and policy formulation. Lieutenant Colonel Brlerich provided advice on matters relating to physical security at the White House Complex.


To manage the Secret Service's internal investigation Director Bowron assigned nine Seasoned Secret Service Inspectors, [3] under the direction of Assistant Director of the United States Secret Service Office of Inspection James G. Huse, Jr., P twenty-four year veteran of the Secret Service, who also served in two combat tours in Vietnam as an Army officer, to conduct the initial investigation. These Inspectors drew upon their familiarity with Secret Service policies, practices, and history to gather relevant facts and to memorialize the Service’s oral history with regard to its air defense and ground defense practices. They also acted as the Secret Service's liaison to the Review Team.

The Secret Service also retained seven outside consultants to assist in evaluating the Service's responses to the underlying incidents, and to study options for improving the security of the White House. The Secret Service's consultants also provided oral briefings to the Review and submitted written Reports, which are included in the Appendix of the Classified Report. The Secret Service's consultants include:

[3 In total, twenty-seven Secret Service personnel were assigned to the investigative team, including the Inspectors.]


MARTIN ANNIS. Dr. Annis is President of AnnisTech, a research and development company specializing in the development of inspection systems to deter terrorists and narcotics smugglers. Dr. Annis has performed research in the use of x-radiation from nuclear weapons to intercept Soviet Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM), And is recognized worldwide for his expertise in x-ray technology. Dr. Annis is also a private pilot who is familiar with air traffic problems in the Washington, D.C. area.

PETER T. BERRY. Major General Berry is the Commander, United States Army Criminal Investigative Command, Falls Church, Virginia. Major General Berry has commanded numerous Army criminal . investigations detachments in Europe, Korea, and the United States. He also serves as a member of the Executive Committee of the International Association of Chiefs of Police.

WILLIAM C. BOYKIN. ColoneI Boykin is a former Commanding Officer for the United States Army, Delta Force. He is an expert on counterrerrorism and special operations.


JOE E. DOLLAR. Dr. Dollar is the Chief Scientist of the National Air Intelligence Center, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Dr. Dollar has developed telemetry ground stations for use by NASA, and has coordinated technical intelligence for the United States Army Missile Command Intelligence Directorate. He has served on numerous threat advisory groups, and has published several studies related to missile and air defense systems.

W. DOUGLAS GOW. Former Associate Deputy Director of the FBI, Mr. Gow is a nationally recognized expert on terrorism and intelligence affairs. Currently Mr. Gow is a consultant to the CIA on counterintelligence policy.

DAN SWARTWOOD. As Senior Program Manager, Mantech Strategic Associates, Ltd., Mr. Swartwood manages contracts involving compliance with international treaty requirements for both government and commercial clients. He is an authority on Operations Security (OPSEC), and the safeguarding of proprietary information.

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONSULTANT. Former Special Assistant to the Director of the CIA for Central Intelligence for


Counterterrorism from 1988 to 1992. This consultant is currently a senior CIA official who reviews operational security issues and is an expert in field operations.

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