activities, smuggling, mail robberies, land frauds, bank frauds, and illegal distilling. Through the end of the nineteenth century, Congress periodically expanded and narrowed the Secret Service's sphere of responsibility. It never, however, authorized the Secret Service to provide protective services to the President.
first, President Cleveland, who did not arrive in Massachusetts until later in the season, was unaware of this arrangement. He apparently approved of it when he learned of it, however, for the detail guarded the family again the next summer. he Cleveland Administration concealed this unauthorized use of the Secret Service for presidential protection.
full-time responsibility for Roosevelt's safety. There were always at least two operatives in street clothes stationed at the White House, and Mrs. Edith Carow Roosevelt, the President's spouse, often requested additional protection without the President's knowledge. Operatives accompanied President Roosevelt whenever he traveled. The Secret Service also increased its efforts to gather intelligence regarding potential threats.
dress, arms, and equipment ... of said guard." In other words, the bill authorized the creation of a plainclothes, secret service within the army.
Senators who supported the military option countered that soldiers would make effective guards, unlike the Secret Service operatives who had failed to protect McKinley in Buffalo.
The Committee further stated that the President should instead be protected ∑ by a "Secret-service force . . . act[ing] under orders from the Secretary of the Treasury." The Senate and House could not resolve their differences over this issue, however, and the conference version of the bill thus did not even address which entity should protect the President. Ultimately, this bill died, along with seventeen other Presidential protection measures introduced after the McKinley assassination. finally, in 1906, Congress quietly included language in the Sundry Civil Expenses Act authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to use funds for "the protection of theperson of the President of the United States." 
assigned two agents to serve as presidential bodyguards. hen the President took extended vacations, the detail increased to eight to allow aound-the-clock protection.
(See Chart 1 on the following page.)
Protectees Year Officially Authorized Comments _________________________________________ President-elect 1913 Actually began 1908 for President elect Taft. President's immediate family 1917 Actually began for President Cleveland's family 1894. Full-time protection for President Taft's children (1909-1913) Vice-Preident (at his request) 1951 Vice-President (not requiring his request) 1962 Vice-President-Elect 1962 Former President (at his request for a reasonable period after leaving office estimated 6 months) 1962 Officer next in line to succeed the President if no Vice-Preident 1962 Widow and minor children of former President for 2 years after President leaves office or dies in office 1963 Respose to assassination of President Kennedy Former President and wife during his lifetime 1965 Widow and minor children of former President for 4 years after he leaves office or dies in office 1965 Major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidate Respose to assassination of Robert Kennedy 1968 Widow of former Prersident until death or remarriage. Minor children of former President until 16 years old 1968 Visiting head of foreign states or governments. At President's direction, other distinguished foreign visitors to the United States and official representative of The United States performing special missions abroad 1971 During World War II, protection provided for foreign dignitaries including Norwegian Crown Princess Martha, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Madame Chiang Kai-shek of China, and Queen Wilhemina of the Netherlands Immediate family of Vice-President 1974 Spouses of Major Presidential and Vice-Presidential candidates 1976 Spouses of visiting heads of foreign states or foreign governments 1986 Mandated by a National Security Directive
Collazo and Griselio Torresola attempted to assassinate President Truman by . shooting their way into Bliar House, his temporary residence across Pennsylvania Avenue from the White House. The assault was timed to coincide with a rebellion against American authority in Puerto Rico.
repeatedly. Three other people were also struck, including a Secret Service agent. Wallace was paralyzed as a result of the attack.
Hilton Hotel in Washington, D.C. Hinckley was standing in a group of spectators several yards from the President. When Hinckley began shooting, Secret Service Secret Agent Tim McCarthy was shot u he shielded President Reagan with his body. Service Agent Jerry Parr pushed Reagan into a limousine, but not before the President was shot beneath his left arm by a bullet that ricocheted off the car. Other bullets struck Presidential Press Secretary James Brady; Agent Tim McCarthy; and Sergeant Thomas Delahanty, a Washington Metropolitan Police officer. President Reagan was seriously wounded, but recovered completely.
investigate the assassination, President Johnson established a commission known Is the Warren Commission because it was chaired by Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. In its 1964 Report, the Warren Commission made numerous recommendations regarding Presidential security. Over the next decade, the Secret Service implemented these recommendations, which fell into three broad areas: (1) an increase in the number of Special Agents assigned to protect the President, and improved training for such agents; (2) an expansion of protective intelligence activities and of cooperation with other law enforcement agencies; and'(3) the acquisition of sophisticated data processing, communications, and technical ,security equipment. The Secret Service created a number of new divisions, incuding rhe lntelligence Division, the Technical Security Division and the Liaison Division, to implement these changes.
quickly as possible. Until it was incorporated lnto PPD, CAT was part of the Special Services Division.