92. 1970 - WINDSCALE. U.K.
Criticality accident. Uncontrolled release of radiation caused by neglect of an accumulation of plutonium in a vessel. Engineers did not know there was any plutonium residue in the vessel as the reactor did not feature the necessary neutron monitoring devices. (Sources: C. Wakstein, P.212)
93. 1970 - BENZNAU, C.S.R.
10 workers exposed to radioactivity. (Sources: Work Circle Environmental Protection)
94. 1970, 3rd April - SHIPPINGPORT, PENNSYLVANIA, USA
Strontium 90 in the soil at the end of the site of the Shippingport nuclear reactor (claimed to be the safest in the U.S.) reached a level 100 times greater than the national average. The radioactivity in milk was 4 times greater. (N. Thieberger Op.Cit.p.5)
95. 1970, April - U.S.S.R.
Apparent sinking of a Soviet nuclear powered submarine in waters north-west of Spain -reported by Pentagon. (WISE NC 262 31/10/86).
96. 1970, April - PACIFIC OCEAN U.S.A.
A nuclear generating device containing plutonium crashed from the Apollo 13 moonshot in the sea near Norfolk Island. Records Show that it contained 3.78 kgs of plutonium 238 N.A.S.A. does not know the location of the module component and there has been no attempt to locate or recover it. Information about the plutonium content was withheld until July, 1980. Mr. Bill Wood, spokesperson in Australia for the U.S. National and Aeronautics and Space Administration, strongly denied there was any danger from the plutonium. Mr. Hesphy, Head of Citizens for Space Demilitarization, said the plutonium involved was very active and would remain so for many years. Although plutonium 238 could not penetrate the human akin, it is highly toxic and could be absorbed by fish and upset the delicately balanced ecosystem of the sea. ("The Australian" - 31st July, 1980)
97. 1970, 5th June - INDIAN POINT, NY, U.S.A.
Reactor had a major plumbing problem which required the use of 700 men (for a few minutes each) over a 7 month period to weld in the radioactive area. ("Les Amis de la Terre"; "L`Escroquerie Nucleaire").
98. 1970, 5th June - DRESDEN 2, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.
A spurious signal started off an incredible series of mistakes by both technicians and equipment. The reactor was out of control for 2 hours, pressure built up inside until it released radioactive iodine 131 to 100 times the safe limit to the dry well. Kendall Maglever preliminary review of the A.E.C. reactor safety study. According to Dr. STERNGLASS of the University of Pittsburgh, 2,500 babies would die because their parents lived downwind of the plant. (Work Circle Environmental Protection; Jean Geue A.A.E.C; Thieberger p.4)
99. 1970, September - FRANCE
Captain Jacques Cousteau, speaking to the Council of Europe, said of barrels of radioactive waste lying at the bottom of the sea, "They have been photographed lying open yawning like oysters". (Thieberger p.4)
100. 1970, 7th-11th September - FRANCE
At the Symposium of the International Atomic energy Agency it was revealed that reprocessing plants "lost" through liquid and solid discharges 1.5% of the materials they process. It was also stated that a nuclear power plant diffuses 30 curies of radioactivity per megawatt per year into the atmosphere. (Thieberger p.5)
101. 1970 - WINDSCALE, U.K.
Uncontrolled radiation release follows failure to observe safety procedures. Negligence blamed as plutonium accumulated in vessel. (Wakestein - "The Myth of Nuclear Safety" -The Ecologist - July, 1977)
102. 1970, 30th September - HANFORD, WA, U.S.A.
A loss of coolant automatically started the primary SCRAM system (SCRAM is the rapid reinsertion of control rods). The system failed due to a short circuit. The backup SCRAM system worked. General Electric calculated that the probability of a failure in SCRAM was one in ten billion; the actual rate so far has been one in ten thousand. Past accidents at Hanford occurred on 3rd October, 1954, 4th January 1955, and 6th January 1966. (Jean Geue A.A.E.C; Webb, R.E. p.192-193)
103. 1970, 18th October - WYLFA, U.K.
The plant was stopped after a power excursion accident, potentially more dangerous than a loss of coolant (LOCA). ("Noun allons tous Craver", J. Pignero - 1st April, 1974; "Les Amis de la Terre")
104. 1970 - OKLAHOMA. U.S.A.
Workers were contaminated when radioactive storage vessel was left open for 3 days. (Nucleus - 25th July, 1979) 1970 - U.S.A.
The Nuggett File lists 7 accidents had occurred in this U.S. nuclear power plant in 1970
105. 1971, January - CHARLEUOIX, MICHIGAN, U.S.A.
A B-52 bomber crashed at Lake Michigan, 2 miles from a small B.W.R. reactor An eyewitness said the plane was heading directly in line with the reactor when it crashed, raining a fireball 200-600 ft in the air. "If the plane had crashed into the reactor there would have been a mayor public disaster... "It has been speculated by the Grumman aerospace official that the plane may have flown into radioactive gasses normally discharged by the reactor's effluent stack. The radioactivity could have interfered with the plane's electronic guidance systems. No report has been made to the public. (R.E. Webb, 1 p.194-145)
106. 1971, January - OKLAHOMA, U.S.A.
Defective equipment allowed plutonium oxide to escape into the atmosphere at Oklahoma City, U.S.A. 22 workers contaminated. (Nucleus - 15th July, 1979).
107. 1971, January - OKLAHOMA, U.S.A.
Explosion killed a compressor worker as he was adjusting compressor.
108. 1971 - DRESDEN 3, IL, U.S.A.
Failure of pressure control system, excecutive pressure built up in safety compartment. (Work Circle Environmental Protection).
109. 1971 - CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.
Five hundred gallons of radioactive primary coolant was inadvertently discharged into Thames River, near New London, Connecticut, from a nuclear powered submarine. (Melbourne "Sun"- 8th Oct 1976, p.23).
110. 1971 - DUGUESNE 3, SHIPPINGPORT, PENNSYLVANIA U.S.A.
Shippport received gamma ray does from Duguesne reactor 56% of permitted annual dose. (Nucleus, 26th July 1979, p.16)
111. 1971, May - WATERFORD, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.
The Millstone B.W.R. reactor suffered a malfunction of the steam valve which caused the radioactivity and hence the power level to rise beyond the fuel or rated power level. The SCRAM system or reactor safety system went into action but had it failed there would have been a rapid core melting, a nuclear runaway explosion, and finally a major public disaster. There is no back up safety system for SCRAM supposedly because SCRAM contains several back up electrical switches. However, all these switches were manufactured improperly causing the coating to become sticky over time. This means that the switches would not be able to open in an emergency. The failure of the back up electrical switches will increase with the passage of time.
The A.E.C. in 1973 issued a regulation requiring back up systems for SCRAM for reactors whose licenses were submitted after 1977. However, this leaves 200 reactors without back up safety systems. (Webb, p.193-194)
112. 1971, mid-year - CLINTON, TENNESSEE, U.S.A.
The manufacturer of sealed radioactive sources abandoned a plant site leaving a significantly contaminated area. The cost of decontamination fell, by default, on the Federal and State Governments. ("A Landscape of Nuclear Tombs", Alexic Parks).
113. 1971 - WINDSCALE, U.K.
Malcolm Patterson (36) died of leukemia after working for 13 years at the plant and was exported to radiation dangers from plutonium. The British nuclear power company, British Nuclear Fuels, has admitted liability and agreed to pay $120,000 damages to his widow. The company told the Court that although it admitted liability the case should not be seen as a precedent. ("The West Australian" - 16th November, 1979)
114. 1971 - NUGGETT FILE, U.S.A.
9 accidents listed in the Nuggett File.
115. 1971, August - GULF OF GASCOYNE
4,000 tonnes of radioactive wastes dumped in the Gulf. (Thieberger p.5, Agence de Press, Rehabilitation Ecologique, Repertoire dea Accidents Nuclesires, Paris 1974, 1976)
116. 1971, August - VERMONT YANKEE, U.S.A.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (1974) quoted the following incident: "In August, 1971, an intruder penetrated past guard towers and fences to enter the grounds of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Plant at Vernon, Vermont". (Nucleus, 25th July, 1979)
117. 1971, 10th October - BUGERY, FRANCE
Fire under the control room just before the reactor was put into service.("Le Monde", 12th August, 1972)
118. 1971, 19th November - MINNESOTA, U.S.A.
Reactor's waste storage space being filled, company began spilling radioactive waste into Mississippi River. By 21st November about 50,000 gallons of wastes had been dumped into the river and some were sucked into the domestic water intake for St. Paul. ("Record on Nuclear Safety", Saskatchewan Coalition Against Nuclear Development in Gyory, A., et al Op.Cit. p.120)
119. 1971, November - INDIAN POINT- BUCHANAN, NEW YORK, U.S.A.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (1974) quoted the following incident: "....in November, 1971, arson caused $5-$10 million damage at the Indian Point No.2 plant at Buchanan, New York". (Nucleus, 25th July, 1979)
120. 1971, December - U.S.A.
A box of radioactive salts of Molybdenum 99 was being carried on a Delta Airlines plane when it began to leak. The leak was not discovered until 9 flights later. Enough radiation escaped to cause "some worries" to the A.E.C. ("Thieberger", p.5)
121. 1971, 10th December - LA HAGUE, FRANCE
Rupture of the pipes carrying radioactive materials, contamination of the pool and drinking water at the plant. 150 separate leaks into the contra occurred. Work periods of 3 minutes were instituted for the welders due to the strong radioactivity of the contra. (Rayonnement, a paper of the CFDT CEA, July, 1972)
122. 1971, December - WINDSCALE, U.K.
Radioactive wastes released into the sea - equivalent to 200,000 curies, 16 times the predicted levels. (Nucleus, 26th July, 1977)
123. 1971 - KAHL, GERMANY
Cracks in the reactor pressure container. (Work Circle Environmental Protection).
124. 1971 - BEZNAU, SWITZERLAND
Fuel rods underwent swelling at Westinghouse reactor; each of the rods was supposed to have been filled with enriched uranium oxide. A number of the spent rods were found to be empty near the top for a space of several inches. (N. Thieberger p.5)
125. 1971 - HINKLEY POINT, SOMERSET, ENGLAND
A former welder, who later became a local councillor in the Safety Liaison Committee of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power station in Somerset, England, alleged that some of the pipe repairs were not properly made on the instruction of his superiors trying to cave work. He also claimed that X-Rays of good welds were used to cover the deception. The events happened in 1971 and are under "very thorough and urgent investigation" by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) after instruction from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NIII). ("The Guardian" 25/2/87, WISE NC 269 27/2/87 p.10)
126. 1974, 26th January - WASHINGTON, DC, U.S.A.
Released today that Dr. Carl Walaki told a Parliamentary Sub-Committee in May and June 1973, that 3,700 people who had access to nuclear arms had been sacked during 1973/74 for reasons such as alcoholism, abuse of narcotics or mental illness. (Thieger, p.8)
127. 1972, 8th March - INDIAN POINT, NY, U.S.A.
Pressures in the primary cooling circuit increased by 30%. Water released subsequently killed 150,000 fish in the Hudson River. Studies in the U.S. have found that there is a slight increase in radiation levels in rabbits and fish around all sites in the U.S. ("New York Times" - 16th June, 1974)
128. 1972, April - WURKGASSEN, WEST GERMANY
Pressure relief valve opened and stuck. Steam poured out and destroyed reinforcement structures. Important reactor control instruments failed to function and about 1,050 tonnes of radioactive water flowed into the River Weser. After months of repair the plant re-opened only to close down again in February 1973, and again in February, 1974. (Lebensahutz - April 1974)
129. 1972, April - GINNA REACTOR, ONTARIO, CANADA
This Westinghouse-designed and -fuelled reactor contained 2,000 fuel rods, 40 of which were bent or crushed. (N. Thieberger Op.Cit. p.5)
130. 1972, June - MIHAMA, UNIT 1, JAPAN
1,900 out of 8,800 pipes of the steam generator were damaged. (n. Thieberger p.5)
131. 1972, 14th June - HOLLAND
A Dutch fisherman found a metal barrel with the words "Highly Radioactive" printed on it, just of the coast of Holland. (N. Thieberger P.5)
132. 1972, July - SACLAY EL-3, FRANCE
There were two gates in this reactor through which radioactive wastes and normal wastes would pass. One would go into a special container, the other went straight into the drains. After the emptying of more than ten cubic metres of radioactive liquids, the special container was still empty. The reason was that the gate leading to it was still closed, while the one leading to the normal drain system was open. (N. Thieberger p5)
133. 1972 - GUNDREMINNGEN, REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
Sediments in reactor core prevented circulation of cooling water. (Work Circle Environm. Protection).
134. 1972 - OBRIGHEIM, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
Radioactive contamination when container of radioactive effluent burst. Several source faults were detected. ("Contingency Plan", Work Circle Environmental Protection)
135. 1972 - SURRY 1, NY, U.S.A.
Two deaths due to failure of a valve. Investigation detected more than 500 faulty welding spots. (Work Circle Environmental Protection, "Not Man Apart" - September, 1972)
136. 1972, September - MILLSTONE 1 REACTOR, U.S.A.
The 40,000 condenser tubes which were made of aluminum alloy corroded, allowing sea water into the cooling system. (Jean Geue A.A.E.C.) "Boston Globe" - 14th October, 1974).
137. 1972, 7th November - TURKEY POINT 3, U.S.A.
Switch gear room of the reactor flooded due to plugged drains. (N. Thieberger Op.Cit.p.6)
138. 1972, 23rd November - TENNESSEE, U.S.A.
A hi-lacked DC-9 circled Oak Ridge nuclear installation for 2 hours. Hi-jackers demanded $10 million. Oak Ridge was shut down and most staff evacuated. Hi-jackers demands were met and they flew to Cuba. (Thieberger p.6; Nucleus - 25/7/79)
139. 1972, 8th December - SICN, ANNECY, FRANCE
Fire in the SICN plant which produced nuclear fuel. A further explosion and fire occurred on 22nd December 1972 and a fire on 9th October, 1973. (SICN - Societe Induatrialle de Combustible nuclesire) (Jean Geue A.A.E.C.)
140. 1972, 14th December - DOUNREAY, SCOTLAND.
Anonymous telephone call alerted security staff who found two parcels in the plant. 1,500 staff members were evacuated. Parcels were empty but could have been bombs. (Thieberger p.6).
141. 1972, 21st December - PERPIGNAN, FRANCE
Children found playing with boxes containing Strontium 90 which they found in a field near the local airport. (Jean Geue A.A.E.C.)
142. 1972, 22nd December - ANNECY, FRANCE
Fire in the SICN plant which produced nuclear fuel. (SICN - Societe Industrialle de Combustible Nucleaire) (Jean Geue A.A.E.C.)
143. 1972 - NUGGET FILE, U.S.A.
10 accidents listed in Nugget File for U.S. nuclear power Stations for 1972.
144. 1973, 15th January - VERMONT YANKEE, U.S.A.
Vermont Yankee reactor emitted 100 times the safe limit of radiation caused by cracks in tubes carrying radioactive material. At one stage Vermont Yankee's plant control rods were put upside down and the plant later started operating with the lid off the pressure vessel. ("Times Record" - 23rd April, 1974).
145. 1973, January - CHOOZ, BELGIUM
Radioactive elements from the nuclear plant entered River Mouse near Vise. Water remained abnormally radioactive for about 6 months. ("La Nouvelle Republique" - 10/1/73)
146. 1973, 16th February - HOLLAND
Container of Cobalt-60 lost in the sea north of the Island of Ulieland. (Thieberger p.10)
147. 1973, 26th March - ARGENTINA
Guerillas entered the Argentinean reactor, painted graffiti and planted a phosphorous bomb in a nuclear plant. The bomb was extinguished before the plant was destroyed. (Agence de Presse, Rehabilitation Ecologigue, Repertoire des Accidents Nucleaires, Paris 1974, 1976; Thieberger p.6)
148. 1973 - LINGEN, GERMANY
Serious damage to steam generators. Took one year to repair only to be replaced two years later with new generators. (Work Circle Environ. Protection)
149. 1973 - WUERGASSEN, GERMANY
Cracks on two cooling systems, potentially catastrophic as complete failure of cooling system could have occurred. Cracks discovered by accident. (Work Circle Environmental Protection)
150. 1973, 17th April - MILLSTONE 1, CONN., U.S.A.
Numerous cracks were discovered in the pipes of the cooling system. Radioactive mist escaped and activated radiation alarms on nuclear submarines docked at Waterford. ("Wall Street Journal" 3/5/1973)
151. 1973, 20th April- HANFORD, WA., U.S.A.
100,000,000 gallons of atomic wastes stored in containers whose life is 30-40 years. A leak was discovered on 20th April, but wastes were still poured into the tanks, resulting in a leakage of 115,000 gallons before 8th June, when pouring stopped. Geologists point out that the area has been under water at least 4 times in the last 40,000 years, the last time being 14,000 years ago. (Work Circle Environ. Protection; Penelope Coleing)
152. 1973 May - VIRGIN ISLANDS, U.S.A.
The nuclear submarine "U.S.S. Sturgeon" suffered "minor structural damage" when it accidentally struck the bottom of the ocean off the Virgin Islands. No injuries reported. (WISE NC 262 31/10/86)
153. 1973, June - HANFORD, WA. U.S.A.
A further 460,000 litres of radioactive liquid spread on the ground surrounding the reprocessing plant. ("Los Angeles Times" -5th July, 1973)
154. 1973, June - MIHAMA, JAPAN
1900 out of 8,000 pipes of steam generator at the No. 1 Unit Mihama damaged. (Nucleus -25/7/1979 )
155. 1973, July - SURRY, VA., U.S.A.
Two workers killed while inspecting defective valves when valve blew off at Surry reactor. (Nucleus - 25th July, 1979)
156. 1973, July - SACLAY KL3, FRANCE
Ten cubic metres of radioactive fluids escaped into drains normally meant for "ordinary" wastes following failure of gate leading to special radioactive waste container which falls open at SACLAY BL3 Reactor. (Nucleus - 25th July, 1979)
157. 1973, July - U.S.A.
According to the A.E.C. cover reactors had been closed down or abandoned (costing millions and millions of dollars) as well as 77 research or experimental reactors, and the only nuclear cargo ship, the "Savannah". Four nuclear submarines were dismantled or "lost". (Thieberger p.7)
158. 1973 - NEW JErSEY U.S.A.
EDWARD GLOSSON, a New Jersey truck dock worker, accidentally spilled plutonium on himself while handling a leaking box of liquid waste in 1963. Four years later his hand, then his arm and shoulder were amputated because of a rare form of cancer from which he died in 1973, aged 39. The company responsible refused to pay him compensation before he died. (Nucleus 25/7/79; Thieberger.7).
159. 1973, September - LA HAGUE (ON THE CHANNEL) FRANCE
Radioactive gas escaped, 35 employees contaminated, 7 seriously. ("Los Echos", 24th September, 1973) According to "Time" magazine the crabs in the Channel have developed ulcerous sores. Radiation level in the crabs in 1975 rose to 8 times the normal level. (Jean Geue A.A.E.C.).
160. 1973 - U.S.S.R.
Sodium leak and chemical explosion in the secondary cooling system of the reactor. ("Le Monde" - 15 Feb 74; Nucleus - 25 Jul 79, p.13)
161. 1973, September - MIHAMA PLANT, JAPAN
Fuel damage discovered, bowing of rods; similar to Westinghouse reactor problems at Robinson Point and Point Beach Island. (Thieberger p.7)
162. 1973, September - WINDSCALE, U.K.
Radiation leak in the reprocessing plant; 34 workers were irradiated. (Jean Geue A.A.E.C.) Head and plant at reprocessing facility went abruptly and alarmingly out of service when an accident occurred involving the inadvertent attempt to fill a vessel already containing highly active residues. (Ian Breach, Windscale Fallout, p.37)
163. 1973, September - MILLSTONE, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.
Forty thousand aluminium alloy condenser tubes in Millstone 1 reactor corroded allowing sea water into cooling system. ("Boston Globe", October, 1974).
164. 1973, 9th October - ANNECY, FRANCE
Fire in the SICN plant which produced nuclear fuel. (SICN - Societe Industrialle de Combustible Nucleaire) (Jean Geue A.A.E.C.)
165. 1973, 12th October - U.S.A.
Congress investigation committee told by SENATOR MIKE GRAVEL that emergency cooling systems had failed six times out of six when tested in 1970. He also told of the discovery of high concentrations of Strontium 90 near the Shippingport reactor in 1972. (Thieberger p.7; nucleus - 25th July, 1979, p.13)
166. 1973, 22nd October - SAN ONOFRE, CA., U.S.A.
Malfunction of turbine generator led to shutdown of reactor. Increased vibration led operators to shut down faster than normal, causing overheating; this in turn activated the primary coolant system which caused a drop in pressure, normally indicating a blocked coolant pipe. The emergency system cut in and flooded the reactor with cooling water which hit the valves with too much force since the coolant was already there; pipes broke and six months were needed to repair the damage. ("The Observer", 2nd October, 1973)
167. 1973, 14th December - HANFORD, U.S.A.
35,000 litres of radioactive waste leak. Jack-rabbits in the area excrete radioactive "hot" pellets and coyotes which eat the rabbits die of radiation poisoning. By the end of 1977 half of a million gallons of wastes had leaked from Hanford site. (Les Amis de la Terre.)
168. 1973, 28th NOVEMBER - U.K.
Wives of employees at Britain nuclear installations started a "love strike", fearing radiation sickness. Nearly all 2,000 employees at Windscale atomic centre were affected. Union delegate, John Nuctur, said that "the young women had told him they refused to have any intimate contact with their husbands because their sweat might radioactively contaminate the linen." (Nucleus, 25 Jul 79; Thieberger p.8).
169. 1973, 20th December - U.S.A.
A truck carrying two casks of radioactive Cobalt was involved in a pile-up of two care and six trucks - one of which was carrying a cargo of inflammable lacquer. One of the cars burst into fire but fortunately the truck carrying the Cobalt did not. (Simpson, J.W. Op Cit. p.2)
170. 1973 - U.S.A.
61 accidents were reported in U.S. nuclear power plants. (D. Higson and D.W. Crancher, Australian Atomic Energy Commission)
171. 1973 - U.S.A.
11 accidents recorded in the Nugget File for 1973.
172. 1973 - VERMONT YANKEE PLANT, U.S.A.
The following failures were listed in the A.C.R. Annual Report for 1973:
1. Emergency core cooling system sensors pressure component failure.
2. Four radiation monitors were not source calibrated at three months intervals. Personnel error.
3. Area gamma monitor on the perimeter fence became inoperable.
4. Instrument lines monitoring suppression chamber were incorrectly tubed to differential pressure sensors.
5. Radioactive gases released. Exact cause unidentified. (Guyorgy, p.107)
173. 1973, 1st Jul - 1974 30th Jun, - U.S.A.
The A.E.C. found a total of 3,333 safety violations at the 1,288 nuclear facilities it inspected. 98 of these posed a threat to radiation exposure to public or workers. Punishment was imposed by the A.E.C. for only 8 of these violations. ("Record on Nuclear Safety", Saskatchewan Coalition Against Nuclear Development in Guyorgy, A., Op Cit. p.120)
174. 1974 - 1975 - U.S.A.
Over a one-year period 15-20 nuclear reactor power stations had to be closed by the N.R.C. due to cracks in the water cooling System. (Work Circle Environmental Protection)
175. 1974, 7th January - LENINGRAD-1, U.S.S.R.
Explosion of a reinforced concrete tank containing radioactive gases at Leningrad-l. ("Nucleonics Week" (31/5/90); WISE-334 22/6/90) .
176. 1974 - BIG ROCK, MICHIGAN, U.S.A.
Charlevoix County in Michigan has an infant mortality rate 448 higher than national average. Immature infant deaths are 18% higher; leukemia is 400% higher. Cancer deaths are 15% more numerous than national average. Congenital defects 230% higher. Charlevoix County is the home of Big Rock Point nuclear power plant. (See Mary Weik 1964) (Thieberger p.8)
177. 1974, 23rd January - CHERBOURG, U.K.
An appeal sent out by radio: "Urgent notice for navigators from Cherbourg - blue container, two metres long, containing radioactive material is lost in the North Sea 56 degrees 36'N., 00 degrees 55'E. In case of discovery do not open, and immediately inform Coast guard Aberdeen". (Nucleus, 15/7/79; Thieberger. p.8)
178. 1974, 6th February - LENINGRAD-1, U.S.S.R.
Explosion of the tertiary circuit at Leningrad-1 from hydraulic shocks induced by violent boiling. Three persons dead. Release into the environment of highly radioactive water containing filter wastes. ("Nucleonics Week" 31/5/90; WISE-334 22/6/90).
179. 1974, February - AUSTRALIA
The annual incidence of leukemia in Australia has increased from just under 2 cases per million in 1930 to 57 cases per million in 1970. ("Atmospheric Testing, a survey of medical statistics in Australia" by Bruce J. Brown)
180. 1974 - KERR McGEE NUCLEAR PLANT, NEW YORK, U.S.A.
Woman contaminated by plutonium. Karen Silkwood had gathered evidence on the unsafe working conditions at the plant and was on her way to deliver these to a newspaper reporter and a union official when she died in mysterious circumstances. ("West Australian" 22nd May, 1979; A.B.C. "Four Corners", 21st July, 1979). Subsequently Karen Silkwood's father received $1 million in settlement from the company.
181. 1974 - NIEDEREICHBAH, WEST GERMANY
A Siemens experimental reactor was abandoned due to insurmountable problems. Cost was approximately $A66 million (DM 200 million). (Work Circle Environmental Protection)
182. 1974, February - WURGASSEN, GERMANY
Violent vibrations in the turbines caused most of the vanes to break off. Repairs cost $A93,000 per day. ("Lebensachultz", Apr 1974; "L'Escroquerie Nucleaire"; Nucleus, 25/7/79 )
183. 1974, 14th March - HANFORD, WA., U.S.A.
Leak of 115,000 gallons of highly radioactive waste. Defective storage tank. This was the seventeenth leak at Hanford. (Nucleus, 25th July, 1979; Penelope Coleing, M.A.U.M.)
184. 1974, 6th April - N.S.P.C., MINNESOTA, U.S.A.
Northern States Power Company reactor dumped 10,000 gallons of radioactive water into the Mississippi River causing Minneapolis to close its water intake gates. From 1969-1974 the A.E.C. made a total of 10,320 inspections and found 3,704 installations with one or more violations (but imposed civil penalties or some other action a total of only 22 times). (N.Y. Times, 26th August, 1974). 1974 analysis "indicating the industry can anticipate a probable accident involving radioactive material in 1974 and perhaps as many as one per month in 2000" (Donald E. Reardon, Deputy Manager ERDA, S.F. Office, at Warren Committee hearing in November, 1975) (Thieberger, p.9)
185. 1974, April, U.S.A.
The N.R.C. recorded 1,421 anomalies in U.S. reactors in 1974, 529 "Potentially significant". (Gen. Nuclear Review Vol 1 No.1 1970)
186. 1974, 2nd May - SAVANNAH RIVER, SOUH CAROLINA, U.S.A.
A radioactive cloud of Tritium formed after a leak in a pipe at nuclear reactor. ("Le Monde" 5/6/1974)
187. 1974, 3rd-4th May - HANFORD, WA., U.S.A.
1,900 to 7,600 litres of liquid radioactive waste containing 600-2400 curies of Caesium 137 and 10-40 curies of Strontium 90 leaked from underground storage tank No. 111 which is 40 metres above the water table. (Penelope Coleing, p.4; Thieberger, p.4; Nucleus, 25th July, 1990)
188. 1974, May - INDIA
Police arrested 5 personnel of a uranium enrichment plant and discovered 3.6 kilograms of uranium. Enquiries revealed the gang which stole uranium, transported it through Nepal to eventually end up in Hong Kong. (Thieberger p.9; Nucleus, 25/7/79)
189. 1974, 28th May - U.S.A.
The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission said that "there were 861 irregularities in the industry in 1973 in the 42 reactors which were working. Of those, 371 had some potential of being hazardous, 18 really were, 12 actually leaked radioactivity in the atmosphere. (Nucleus 25/7/79; "Les Amis de la Terre")
190. 1974, May - MIAMISBURG, OHIO, U.S.A.
A.E.C. laboratory leaked plutonium contaminating the Erie Canal. ("Boston Globe", 14th May, 1974)
191. 1974, 11th July - QUAD CITIES, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.
Radioactive vapour escaped after a valve on the primary circuit ruptured. Reactor had been working at 25% capacity. ("Chicago Sun Times" 11th July, 1974)
192. 1974, August - GRENOBLE ISKRE, FRANCE
Leak into the reactor pool of 2,500 curies. ("Le Monde", 29th September, 1974)
193. 1974, August - ANS, MATSU, JAPAN
The crew of this nuclear cargo vessel discovered a leak in pipes carrying radioactive materials after leaving Japan. Because of the potential danger they were unable to re-enter Japanese waters. Operators used berated boiled rice and old socks to try to block the leak. ("Les Amis de la Terre"; "L'Escroguerie Nuclesire" Patterson, p.213.)
194. 1974, 3rd Sept - LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO, U.S.A.
1,900 to 3,800 litres of radioactive liquid escaped into the environment onto one of the main streets and into a parking lot. The area was closed off, parts of the road were replaced. Past accidents at Los Alamos occurred on 21st Aug. 1945; 25th May, 1946; 30th Dec. 1958. (Thieberger, p.11; Nucleus, 25/7/79)
195. 1974, September and December - ILLINOIS AND CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.
A crack about 7.6 cms long was discovered at the Dresden Plant in Norris. As a result of this discovery some 60 others were found. Plants of similar type were investigated (Millstone, Quad-Cities, Dresden 2) and two Japanese facilities were found to have experienced the same problem. (Nucleus, 25/7/79; Thieberger, Ibid.)
196. 1974, 19th September - RINGHALS, SWEDEN
Three pumps of the primary cooling system broke down. Reactor had to work at 30% capacity after the accident. ("Not Man Apart", mid-October 1974; "L'Escroquerie Nucleeire")
197. 1974, 18th October - CON EDISON TRI-CITIES PLANT
Radioactive gas released, exceeding the A.E.C. limit by 33%. In 4,000 shipments of radioactive fuel in 1975, 400 reported accidents occurred in which 150 released "small amounts" of radioactivity, two "Potentially dangerous". (Robert Barker, N.R.C. Department of Transportation, in his summary of WASH 1238 at Warren Committee hearings in November, 1975).
198. 1974, 10th November - SAINT LAURENT DES EAUX, FRANCE
Fire in electrical panel of the SL2 reactor. Reactor shut down and not allowed to run at full capacity. ("Journal du dimanche", 10th November, 1974)
199. 1974, 23rd Beeper - SACLAY, FRANCE
Chemical explosion occurred during the cleaning of pipes at the Osiris reactor injuring six people, no radioactive leak. ("Le Figaro", 24th November, 1974)
200. 1974, November - WINDSCALE, UK
Monitoring failure at reprocessing plant, worker allowed to leave with plutonium on his shoos. (C. Wakstein, "The Myth of Nuclear Safety"; Nucleus, 25th July, 1979, p.15)
201. 1974 - PALISADES, MICHIGAN, U.S.A.
Pallisades reactor taken out of service after leaks in 7,000 out of the 14,000 tubes in condenser were discovered. (Thieberger p.11)
202. 1974, December - TENNESSEE, U.S.A.
Radiation levels at one Tennessee reactor lunch room measured at eight times normal level. (Nucleus, 25th July 1979 p.15)
203. 1974, December - WIEDERRICHBACH, GERMANY
Experimental Siemens reactor abandoned in Niederrichbach. Impossible problems. Cost $A66 million. (Nucleus, Ibid)
204. 1974 - U.S.A.
14 accidents are listed in the Nugget file for 1974.